Saturday, December 7, 2019

Evaluative Report and Project Plan

Question: Discuss about the Evaluative Report and Project Plan. Answer: Introduction This report is based on essential concepts of training and development which is necessary at every workplace. The training process is implemented at every workplace according to its requirements and it is necessary that training and developing process should be effective to teach employees about working conditions of a particular workplace. To successfully run a training process, there is requirement of essential driving forces. According to Noe and Winkler (2012), there are some major driving forces exist that may influence training and development process such as sustainability, globalization, organizational strategy, technology, economic changes, customer services and quality emphasizing etc. All these driving forces are helpful to provide a successful training to staff members. The purpose of making this report is to discuss most significant driving force, among above mentioned driving forces for our current workplace. Besides this driving force we will select a general area that we wish to focus on for training development and its program. Next essential topic to discuss in this report is development of a basic project plan that is related to development and evaluating of training process at workplace. Most Significant Force for Training at Workplace Before start discussion about significant force for training at workplace, it is better to know basic meaning of training. Training basically refers to a planned effort by a company to learning of jobs competencies for an employee. The major competencies are skills, behavior and knowledge and these are critical for successful job performance. The main goal of a training is to master the knowledge, skill and behavior that emphasized in programs of training. Therefore, to implement this important process of training, there is requirement to have an effective driving force. The selected force to implement training process successfully is Technology. This has been selected as most the significant force for training process because at our workplace the use of advanced technology is required to compete effectively. At our workplace, sustainability and globalization are already in action for training process, but lack of usage of advanced technology at workplace in training and regular acti vities is poor. Therefore, we are enhancing use of advanced technologies in our organization, because it will help us to globalize our business more and to communicate overseas with clients and customers without problem. This is the main reason that we consider, technology most significant force for our workplace. The technology has reshaped the way of our working at business workplaces. Internet, smartphones and computers are best examples of technologies and these have made our work so simple and easier. E-Commerce or online business is also example of increasing business online. Therefore, the training for these techniques and tools has become so important for every business organization. Most of the potential customers demand for implementation of these techniques are at workplaces. General Area for Development of Successful Training Program For implementing a successful training program with a significant force at workplace, there is requirement to select a general developing area and that selected area is improvement in team work skills for process area. To run business projects successfully team work is important. An individual cannot complete a project, different employees are required to work together on a project to complete this on time and within budget. Therefore, we want to focus on this general area of team work. At our workplace, it is commonly encountered that employees do not response effectively in team work, even they have lack of knowledge to work in team. Therefore, to achieve an effective team work it will be better to develop training program in this general area at our workplace. There are some basic reasons that why we have selected this general area for training purpose and that reasons are listed as below: 1.From this training program about team work, employees will know how to effectively work in a team. 2.Through this training program, trainers will teach how complex projects can be resolved in teams by assigning different modules of work to every team member. 3.To complete projects within predefined deadline and budget, training program will be helpful. Good business outcome can be achieved. Due to above discussed reasons, we would like to implement training program for improving team work at our workplace. It is a significant way to improve areas where an organization is lacking and may encounter problems in competitive market. Development of Basic Project Plan by Training Design Process In above segments of report, we have already discussed about required force for training program and general area for this program at our workplace. Now in this segment of report, we will emphasize on development of basic project plan by using training design process. Training Design Process The training design process refers to a systematic approach that is used for developing training programs. There are some essential steps in this designing process that are required to follow and that steps are listed as below: Step1: it is to conduct needs evaluation and it is known as Conducting Needs Assessment. Step2: This step is to ensure that employees have motivation and basic skills that are required to master the training content. Step3: This step is related to creation of learning environment with features important for learning. Step4: This step ensures that trainees apply the training content at their jobs. Step5: It is required to develop an evaluation plan. Step 6: This step is related to selection of a training method that is based on learning objectives and environment. Step7: This step is concerned with evaluation of program and make changes in it. Now by using these training design process, we will develop a basic project plan on development and evaluation of training process that we want to implement at our workplace and this training process is for improving team work skills (SHRM, 2017). Project Plan by using Training Design Process for Team Work Improvement Directing Needs Assessment: Under this step of training design process for improving team work, we will evaluate actual needs for implementing team work. In this process, organizational analysis, person analysis and task analysis where team work is required, will be done. Ensure Willingness of Employees for Training It is an important step of training design process and under this step, willingness of employees is ensured to know that they have potential to work in a team or not. To achieve this, attitudes, motivation and basic skills of employees are analyzed. Creation of Learning Environment According to this step of design process of training, all requirements must be considered to create an effective learning environment. Therefore, to improve skills of team work at work place, we will create learning environment for this by considering some essential features such as learning objectives, practice, feedback, required and meaningful material, modeling and program administration. Ensure Training Transfer After implementing training process at workplace, it is essential to ensure that training is delivering to all employees or not. It is not an easy task to perform, but to achieve this, self-management and peer and manager support is required. The peer and manager support helps employees to manage their training at their own level by contacting with trainer and by asking queries regarding team work. On another side, in self-management it is responsibility of trainer to ensure about training transfer. Selection of Training Method The selection of training method is an important thing to do in process of training. It will be better to select a method that is easier to provide training to trainees. So to give training to improve team work, we have decided to use e-learning method that is so much easy to adapt by trainers and trainees can also understand easily with this. Monitoring and Evaluation of Program This is last step of training design process and it is related to monitoring and evaluation of program for which we are giving training. To evaluate that all employees are learning effectively about team work or not, we will conduct periodic evaluation, improve program and will make changes. In this way, by using above listed steps of training design process, we will develop our project plan for improving team work at workplace (Noe, 2012). Project Plan Resources Required Who will I need to Consult Who will I need to Inform Start Date Completion Date Notes Directing Needs Assessment Evaluate actual needs for implementing team work. Feedback of projects managers regarding a particular project, organizational analysis, person analysis and task analysis. Project managers and senior staff members Top Level Management 15-3-2017 18-3-2017 - Ensure Willingness of Employees for Training The willingness of employees is ensured to know that they have potential to work in a team or not. Attitudes, motivation and basic skills of employees are analyzed. HR Manager HR Department 19-3-2017 21-3-2017 - Creation of Learning Environment All requirements must be considered to create an effective learning environment. Consider some essential features such as learning objectives, practice, feedback, required and meaningful material, modeling and program administration. Professional Trainees in Business Organization Training Development Department 21-3-2017 22-3-2017 - Ensure Training Transfer To ensure that training is delivering to all employees or not. The self-management and peer and manager support is required. Trainees of a particular training process Training Development Department 23-3-2017 23-3-2017 - Selection of Training Method It will be better to select a method that is easier to provide training to trainees. Use e-learning method that is so much easy to adapt by trainers and trainees. It is possible in a way that trainees can get 24/7 hours accessibility of service and enhance collaboration in significant cost. Technical Expert Technical Department 24-3-2017 25-3-2017 - Monitoring and Evaluation of Program It is related to monitoring and evaluation of program for which we are giving training. Periodic evaluation, improvement in existed programs and implementation of new changes. Project Team Project Manager 26-3-2017 29-3-2017 - Figure: Template of Project Plan Conclusion After this whole discussion we can say that, in this report we have discussed about some important concepts to do work at workplace effectively. From these concepts we got to know importance of training, skills and qualification at a workplace and how employees and management should do efforts to give importance to these concepts and its implementation to run business in better way in this competitive world. References Noe, R., Winkler, C. (2012). Employee training and development (1st ed.). SHRM.(2017). How to Conduct a Training Needs Assessment. Retrieved 13 April 2017, from

Monday, November 25, 2019

Alternative Medicine

Alternative Medicine Free Online Research Papers Over the last decade, there have been growing concerns over the cost of prescription drugs and the inequitable investments accompanied with it. Consumers are constantly being deceived as they spend money on high priced drugs that tend to keep phony promises. â€Å"Spending in the U.S. for prescription drugs was $162.4 billion in 2002, 4 times larger than the amount spent in 1990† (Kaiser). Imagine if these amounts of money could be spent on something more useful than processed drugs. Money could be spent more intelligently by reinforcing other forms of healing which, can also directly impact the brain just as effectively as drugs. These types of natural remedies have been proven by ample research to be substantially more beneficial than chemical drugs. In fact, the only time ‘medicine’ could ever be harmful is when it contains side effects. Why would anyone want to take risks of harming themselves for the sake of self -healing. Television commercials constantly promote drug use and range from a variety of different drugs, whether it be aspirin or anti-depressants, any type of chemical intake can always have hazardous risks because of it‘s artificial production, it‘s not considered ‘natural’ to the body. Any commercials that are advertising prescription drugs always manages to point out all of the benefits the drug exhorts; such as rapid pain relief, and quick acting substances that will surely alter the user‘s mental state. Except, for some reason they always seem to mention the lengthy list of side effects at the very end of the ad, where it is said in a very low tone, that is ridiculously fast and can barely be understood. The general public is being trained to take â€Å"magical pills† that will â€Å"magically† make a person feel better. This soci ety has taught everyone to be overly rushed. People rush so frequently that they forget about taking care of vital priorities in their lives; such as their mind, body, and soul. Keeping these three important aspects of life balanced, and at healthy states can be extremely helpful. Hence, the definition of health, â€Å"a positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being † (Sarafino p 2). In this modern age, health is not solely seen as just a physical aspect. A healthy body produces healthy emotions, which in turn produces a healthy life style. People are not aware that our brain is a warehouse of chemicals waiting to be put to use to support our actions in our daily lives. For example, those who exercise claim to feel â€Å"very good† after a good work-out. The same neurotransmitter Dopamine, which activates motivation, movement, and reward, can be released while taking a recreational drug and also while doing natural movements of the body such as exercising, laughing, and feeling happy. Lack of this hormone can lead to depression. People have to become aware of the simple movements that can encourage a pleasant state of mind. There have been many cases where therapies and exercises of the mind and body have greatly improved behavior naturally, without use of pharmaceutical drugs. Even though these types of therapies exist, they are generally not recogniz ed by the general public compared to the constant drug exposure that is all over the news, television, and radio broadcasts. It has been made a common belief in the United States that a â€Å"miracle pill† will make all the troubles go away. This, unfortunately, is not always the case. â€Å"Although the prescription drug spending is a relatively small proportion (11%) of national health care spending, it is one of the fastest growing components, increasing at double digit rates in each of the past 8 years. National prescription spending increased from 15% from 2001 to 2002, compared to an 8% increase for physician and clinical services and a 10% increase for hospital care†. (Kaiser) The motives for this dramatic increase in prescription costs are due to devious and heinous acts of crimes that allows the government to take money from it’s loyal citizens who in return receives deceptive medical treatment that at times can cause more harm than good. There are many people who can’t afford any type of health insurance. This often leads certain populations with no options to choose from. People are paying for high priced medication that profits billions of capita per year, from artificially producing toxic chemicals that may cause us harm yet we consume it as if it were a life saver. There are three main factors contributing to these increases; the primary being the aggrandizement of medications being prescribed. From 1993-2003-, the number of prescribed prescriptions purchased increased 70% (from 2 billion to 3.4 billion), compared to a U.S. population growth of 13%; the average number of prescriptions per capita increased from 7.8 to 11.8. (Census Bereau, 2003). Secondly, newer and higher priced drugs are the new replacements for older, less expensive drugs. Retail prescription prices have increased an average of 7.4% a year from 1993-2003 (Nat. Assoc. of Chain Drug Stores). Lastly, since there are newer drugs being produced, the research and development activities of pharmaceutical manufacturers and government-supported research have also sky rocketed. Manufacturer research and development spending increased from $12.7 billion in 1993 to an estimated $33.2 billion for 2003, with research and development estimated to be 17.7% of sales in 2003 (Pharm. Res. Ma nufacturers of America). With all this money being spent, it was no wonder pharmaceutical manufacturers were the nation’s most profitable industry from 1995-2002. Now, although it may be beneficial to have the advantage of being able to purchase medical aid directly with money, at the same time, money is a very large factor why not everyone can afford treatment. How is it that the government can offer excess amounts of medication but will not allow everyone to have vital access to it’s ‘necessary benefits‘. A recent survey found that 37% of the uninsured said that they did not fill a prescription because of cost, compared to 13% of the insured. A 2001 survey of seniors in 8 states (42% of US adults age 65+) found that in the last 12 months, 35% of seniors without prescription drug coverage either did not fill a prescription 1 or more times or skipped doses of medicines to make the prescription last longer, compared to 18% with drug coverage (Kaiser, 2003). This type of behavior is highly inappropriate and most definitely unnecessary for anyone to go through. People should not have to worry about the money they spend on medical treatment. Nor should they ever have to choose whether or not to buy medicine based on their financial situation. It clearly shows that those who have a higher income can easily afford better services, which are not always available to those who have a lower income. Fortunately, there are a variety of other options to choose from if you do not agree on putting harmful chemical substances in your body. There are ‘alternative ways’ of healing where a person can be completely cured through mind and body exercises which can help a person resolve conflicts found within themselves. One type of healing is therapy, however there are several kinds of therapy; such as psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, phytotherapy, acupunctural therapy, couples therapy, divorce therapy, growth therapy, interpersonal therapy, and that is just a few to say the least. Psychotherapy is the treatment of mental and emotional disturbances and disorders using psychological methods. It is used to help people solve problems, achieve goals, and manage their lives by treating a variety of mental health issues. This type of therapy is mainly used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, phobias, and substance abu se. Unlike some other therapies, psychotherapy is limited to conversations. Drug therapy and any other physiological treatment methods are excluded from these procedures. This practice concentrates directly on the person’s behavior, it helps the person better understand what they are undergoing and the reasons behind them. Yes, it may be a bit more complicated than simply raising an elbow and swallowing a pill. The reason why natural healing is so beneficial is because it can not only be just as powerful as a drug, but it is unquestionably safer than some of the severe side effects or allergic reactions these chemicals can produce in our bodies. In one study of emotional disclosure in people with rheumatoid arthritis, Kelley, Lumley, and Leisen (1997) found that people who had written about their emotions had significantly less physical dysfunction than those assigned to a control condition. There is also some evidence that psychological interventions can help post-heart attack patients who are depressed. In a review of that literature, Linden and colleagues (1996) reported that psychosocial interventions can decrease depression, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cholesterol levels in CHD patients. Moreover, patients who did not receive psychosocial treatment were 1.7 times more likely to die from their CHD- and 1.8 times more likely to have another heart attack in a 2 -year follow-up period- than patients who were treated for their depression and anxiety. (Butcher et al.,2007). These positive behaviors include methods such as self-monitoring, reinforcing, and cognitive restructuring. This type of behavior seems to be safer than exposing the body to harmful substances which commonly lead to mental and physical dependence. It was supposed to be a short course of treatment with tranquilizers after the death of her infant son 15 years ago. But Lynn Ray, 46, of Germantown, MD., says her abuse of the anti-anxiety drug Xanax and other prescription drugs led to a long struggle with addiction that nearly ruined her life. These tranquilizers, which slow down the central nervous system and cause drowsiness, surely numbed Ray’s agony, helped her sleep, and untied the relentless knot in her stomach. Soon, however, although her doctor prescribed one pill in an eight-hour period, she took two or three in an attempt to intensify the calming effect of the drug. Most patients take medicine responsibly, but approximately 9 million Americans used prescription drugs for non-medical purposes in 1999, according the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Also, many people are deceived about the amount of harm these pills can contain because they think since it is coming from a ‘trusted’ source that no harm is involved. One other type of therapy that is very useful is the management of behavior, or behavioral therapy. This is the use of therapeutic procedures based primarily on principles of classical and operant conditioning. Simply put, a person learns to train themselves to behave in a more controllable, appropriate manner by completely transforming the once problematic behavior into a more subtle disciplined reaction. â€Å"Behavioral approaches play a major role in helping people alter dangerous lifestyle choices such as smoking and excessive alcohol use, (Butcher et al). There are thousands of people of varied ages who are uncontrollably addicted to cigarettes and alcohol. Most of them struggle with the addiction, while most do not realize that a problem exists. Cognitive therapy is the form of effectual therapy that essentially, focuses on the client’s thoughts rather than feelings or behaviors. These changes in thoughts aid to solve psychological and personality problems. In 1971, Arnold Lazarus discovered a process that cognitively restructures stress-provoking thoughts and replaces them with more constructive or realistic thoughts (Sarafino). Another cognitive approach is designed to help clients solve problems within their lives. With problem-solving training, clients learn a strategy for identifying, discovering, or inventing effective or adaptive ways to address problems in everyday life (D’Zurilla,1988; Nezu Perri,1989). This type of practice enables a person to clearly define a problem, which leads to generating a variety of possible solutions and choosing the best course of action. Evidence indicates that problem-solving training reduces anxiety and other negative emotions (D’Zurilla, 1988). Some cognitive-based approaches use a variety of methods to help support people coping with any type of problem. Donald Meichenbaum and his colleagues have developed a procedure called stress-inoculation training that is designed to teach people skills for alleviating stress and achieving personal goals (Meichenbaum Cameron, 1983) Researchers have also examined the effects of various behavioral relaxation techniques on selected stress-related illnesses. Therapy can address a wide range of concerns such as depression, relationship crisis, parenting problems, emotional distress, career issues, substance abuse, significant loss, and clinical disorders or conditions. The key to therapy is to provide life-enhancing help in fulfilling aspirations for personal growth and self-improvement. There are numerous relaxation methods that can be used in order to alleviate stressful feelings. Massaging for example, has several forms that vary in the degree of pressure applied, causing different sensations depending on the type of stroke that is applied. Surprisingly, massages have many health benefits. Massaging has been showed to calm the nervous system and promote a sense of relaxation and well being. It also improves blood circulation, which is essential to delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells. Stimulation of the lymphatic system is caused by massaging, this improves the body’s process of waste removal. By stimulating the muscles through massage, it can prevent and relieve muscles from uncomfortable cramps and spasms. Also, massage therapy can also help with pain management in conditions such as arthritis, sciatica, and muscle spasms (Brown 2007). Studies also show that massage therapy can reduce anxiety and depression (Moyer, Rounds, Hannum, 2004). It also helps reduce hypertension, some types of pain, and asthma symptoms; some evidence indicates that it may bolster immune function (Field, 1996,1998). A type of therapy that is familiar to most but tremendously underestimated is meditation. Meditation is an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of deep relaxation and loss of self awareness ( Kosslyn Rosenberg 2004). Mediators experience a â€Å"relaxed, blissful, and wakeful state† (Jevning et al., 1992, p 415). Like most other therapies, there are many distinctive forms of meditation that can specifically alter certain aspects of the mind. For example, there is ‘concentrative meditation’ which would challenge a person to concentrate on one single stimulus, while disregarding the rest of the environment. Another form of meditation is called ‘opening-up meditation’ which is a more advanced form of concentration that eventually develops skills to merge with the environment one is in. Regular meditation reduces tension and anxiety (Carlington, 1977) and decreases levels of stress (MacLean et al., 1997) as well as cardiac measur es such as blood pressure (Barnes et al., 2001). Although meditation helps people relax, it has a broader purpose: to develop a clear and mindful awareness, or â€Å"insight† regarding the essence of one’s experiences, unencumbered by cognitive or emotional distortions (Hart, 1987; Sole-Leris, 1986). Meditation aims at the mindful awareness component that essentially helps individuals who suffer from chronic pain to release the cognitive and emotional distortions they have along with their pain. Still, the main question of concern for stress management is whether meditation is a useful procedure for alleviating stress in daily life. Research as generally found that it is (Lichstetin,1988). Concentrating more on how to control the mind rather than depending on a substance can greatly improve behavior. Yoga for example, is a type of mental and physical exercise that prioritizes the mental use of concentration in order to have control over the mind. Practicing yoga can yield a vast array of benefits which practicioners often claim create a complete reversal of medical conditions. The benefits vary based on poses practiced, and the intensity (measured by awareness, not sweat) and duration and frequency of practice. Today, modern scientists confirm the benefits of yoga practice for general health and well-being. The following are a few general health benefits that can be gained by practicing yoga, relieves fatigue, boosts energy levels, boosts immune system, reduces stress, improves focus, alleviates insomnia, normalizes blood pressure, tones heart muscles, improves circulation, prevents osteoporosis, relieves arthritis, reduces gastritis reduces acidity, relieves stomac h aches, improves sinus conditions, and can even alleviate addictions and eating disorders (Cirone, 2001). Although alternative medicine sounds relieving for most symptoms, some people have doubts about what natural medicine can do versus chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery treatments used on cancer. Surgery is a more frequently preferred treatment because if the cancer is localized, surgery can be very effective. However, if not all the cancer is eliminated, the patient’s symptoms may disappear for a time-or â€Å"go into remission†- only to return at a later date (Sarafino 2007). The other form of therapy is radiation, which in high doses damages the DNA of cells. Since radiation affects both healthy and malignant cells, the affected areas of skin may suffer irritation, itching, peeling, blistering, burns, or hair loss. Common side effects are diarrhea, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, mouth problems, sexual changes, swelling, trouble swallowing, urinary and bladder changes, loss of appetite, sterility, and reduced bone marrow function. Most of these side effects go away within 2 months after radiation therapy is finished. Late side effects may first occur 6 or more months after therapy and may include infertility, joint problems, lyphedema, mouth problems, and secondary cancer (National Cancer Institute 2007). In the days preceding radiation treatment, individuals often worry about these side effects and report heightened anxiety (Anderson, Golden-Kreutz, DiLillo, 2001). Out of all these side effects, none of them are beneficiary to the patient. How could someone produce a form of therapy that can simultaneously be highly harmful to the patient. When chemotherapy is requested, patients receive powerful drugs usually orally or by injection, that circulate through the body to kill cells that divide very rapidly (AMA, 2003; Williams, 1990). A major problem with this therapy is that the drugs also kill many normal cells that divide rapidly, which can produce adverse side effects, including reduced immunity to infection, sores in the mouth, hair loss, nausea, and vomiting, and damage to internal organs (ACS, 2004, AMA, 2003). Although most of these effects are temporary, these are not suitable conditions for anyone during any time, especially if one is already physically weak from the cancer itself. It is always important to know that â€Å"cancer is caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, and that high stress can promote progression of the disease. Environmental factors include smoking tobacco, diet, ultraviolet radiation, and household and worksite chemical hazards, among others† (Sarafino 2007). By looking at the information provided earlier, it clearly states that alternative medicine such as cognitive therapies, meditations, or massages can significantly reduce stress and improve well being overall. The difference between natural medicine and prescription medicine is clear, although they both essentially ‘cure’ the person, except one consists of synthetic chemicals which are being forced into the body, causing the body to withdraw the poison by having severe side effects. In conclusion, scientific studies can clearly show the emphasis of positive and negative effects caused by certain treatments. There are most definitely many other different varieties of alternative medicine that do not strictly have to adhere to prescription pills. Whether a pill is ecstasy, or just an aspirin, it’s still a drug and it still means that it can have influences on your thoughts and behavior. I think there is enough money being spent on pharmaceutical drugs, this money should be put to use by figuring out more positive, motivational changes that can be applied to behavior; instead of ignoring it and taking substances to numb the pain. Doctors at this time need to worry less about the money they make and more about the people they save. Research Papers on Alternative MedicineThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductGenetic EngineeringArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Bionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAnalysis Of A Cosmetics Advertisement

Friday, November 22, 2019

Psychology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Psychology - Assignment Example Psychology is the Science that create an understanding towards a logical thinking ability keeping humane in concise. It is a science which is not new but with us right from the human civilization. It is the way where an understanding is built up about the behaviour of a person, and methods could be devised to enhance what is lacking in the personality and how well an individual be groomed to have a sound and congenial influence on the society or social ambience of the individual. Besides the fact that lot of research has been carried out we are still at the tip of the iceberg to further dwell towards the understanding of psychology. So far an immense collection of theories that have been postulated over the years have been made and studied along with varies protocols and experiments that have been performed to resolve behaviour issues. Theories postulated are for different kinds of behaviour and not the same for all kinds of behavioural issue. Based on psychological theories humans are classified into various patterns and syndromes. Psychology helps these individuals to recover various therapeutic problems. Thus psychology encompass a study of behaviour including the activities and reactions; and the internal progression of views and judgments. The term "psyche" means soul and "logos" means a study. Thus psychology is not confined to any core study but it encompass a complete understanding of the nature as well as the way it was nurtured under a given set of conditions. Psychology sets its goal for its study as: Description of the issue or the subject, explanation, prediction of the possibilities and modifications that are possible. 1. Description- It describes the performance, that an individual displays and based on this analysis a psychologists try to comprehend if this attitude or behaviour is under normal or acceptable limits. For this, a psychologists analyzes, opinion and views, emotions, beliefs, mind-set, outlook and approaches,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Knowledge Management and its Benefit to Business Assignment

Knowledge Management and its Benefit to Business - Assignment Example 2. Background Knowledge management is defined as a concept through which a business or an enterprise collects, organizes, distributes, and analyzes individuals and groups’ knowledge within an organization in ways that affect the performance of the business directly (Oliver & English, 2007). Knowledge management has also been defined as the process of identifying and analyzing available, relevant, and required knowledge processes and assets within an organization with the primary aim of achieving organizational goals and objectives. Over the years, knowledge management has proved to be an effective tool in enabling organizations to achieve their objectives (Pauleen & Gorma, 2011). There are numerous benefits that are associated with knowledge management. The first one is that it helps to ensure that right information gets to the right individuals at the appropriate time in order to facilitate making of the right decisions. Besides, it has been associated with increasing efficie ncy in the organizations, and this is critical in improving organizational productivity and performance (Davidson, 2002). Also, knowledge management tends to promote growth and learning among employees. Employee learning and growth is not only crucial in boosting employee satisfaction but also in enhancing their productivity at work (Collins et al., 2010). Since knowledge management helps in making better decisions in the organizations, it enables organizations to reduce costs because decisions on cost-related issues are appropriate and aimed at reducing costs in order to increase profitability. Along with that, it helps business avoid unnecessary cost because people involved know what the right cost is to incur through knowledge management process (Esposto & Abbott, 2011). Moreover, knowledge management is beneficial in the sense that it improves team communication. The process of collecting, sharing, and analyzing knowledge with the organization promotes communication among those involved, and this significantly contributes towards improved team communication (Pauleen & Gorma, 2011). In addition, it reduces the time taken in problem solving process in the business because there is knowledge of what the problem may be in the business and what the possible solutions should be. More importantly, knowledge management enhances customer satisfaction and participation. Knowledge management involves collecting, sharing and analyzing knowledge on a lot of issues including those about customers. The knowledge analyzed regarding customers can be used to create ways through which customer participation and satisfaction can be improved (Collins et al., 2010). Additionally, it can help a business have a better understanding of the market; this is important in helping business to devise ways through which a business can increase its market share in order to increase its profitability. Furthermore, improved profitability is another benefit associated with knowledge manageme nt. Since knowledge management provides business with ways of reducing its costs, increasing market share, enhancing customer satisfaction, and improving team communication, business performance is bound to improve and, therefore, lead to improved profitability (Oliver & English, 2007). While it is understood that knowledge management is of great value and benefits, it appears that people have

Monday, November 18, 2019

Total Integration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Total Integration - Essay Example Technology played a big role in setting the pace for these changes. As we approach the era of globalisation and liberalisation, and the channels of communication become diverse and more consumer friendly, reaching out to the customer is not considered the task of marketing department in isolation. Now the customer can be reached through the online route, different types of web-services etc. besides the traditional methods like media advertising, sponsorships, word of mouth publicity etc. Now an increasing emphasis is being laid on creating goodwill amongst the existing as well as prospective customers. Such efforts require that an integrated approach is adopted towards the ultimate objective. Total integration strategy is a broader term which involves an integrated approach in dealing with human resources, manufacturing, marketing, R&D and other supporting wings of the business entity. Environmental concerns and philanthropic efforts have also become integral parts of the creating goodwill and adding more market space. In addition to adding more features, value addition becomes the key component of product differentiation. Market led forces necessitate that the company should come out with a product which appeals to the customer's requirements. Piercy (2002) points out that total integration calls for change in thinking of the company from the traditional functions like marketing, sales, production etc. to the need for seeking active cooperation and coordination from all the stakeholders in the business. Such an approach in fact divides the marketing function also in four different segments namely; Integrated or Full service Marketing Departments: Such marketing departments are the one's which have become a norm now a days. Value addition and customer care happen to be the topmost priority in these types of marketing wings. Lack of adequate time, a fast life, range of available other brands in the market and evolving needs of the customer necessitate such an approach on the part of the manufacturer and the service provider. The emphasis in such an approach is not on operational effectiveness, but on value addition and other effective strategies instead. Porter (1996) points out that, for a company to outperform its rivals it has to establish a difference and subsequently to preserve it. This can be done in a effective manner by delivering a greater value to the customer, creating comparable value at lower cost or to do both. The full service marketing departments are not only meant for soliciting sales orders, but they also have the added responsibility of reaching out to the c ustomer, by integrating marketing campaigns or otherwise. In view of added responsibilities to such department Piercy (2002) states that such departments can wield 'clout' in the company affairs. In fact while product differentiation is key to an integrated approach, the evolving nature of core competencies has also become the hallmark of globalisation and competitive era. Nicholas (1996) also points out towards the changing nature of core competencies when he points out that Core competences can indeed deliver sustainable competitive advantage, but with competitor making inroads into the turf and affecting the needs of the customer, a phase invariably arrives when companies are supposed to unlearn these competencies and a company which can move easily through such a transition process find the sustainable business goal rather easily.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Software piracy: An overview

Software piracy: An overview SOFTWARE PIRACY IN AFRICA Software piracy is a combination of two different words which are software and piracy. Software can be defined as generic term for computer programs which operate the computer itself; Also Microsoft Encarta dictionary defined the word software as programs and applications that can be run on a computer system. Piracy can simply be defined as the unauthorized reproduction, doubling and distributing or use of copyrighted materials; as for this software piracy can be the illegal copying of software for distribution within the organizations, schools, homes or to friends, clubs and other groups, or for duplication, selling, and installing multiple copies onto personal and work computers. Citizens duplicate or copy software illegally from Macromedia, Adobe, Symantec, Autodesk, Microsoft, Grisoft e.t.c. Africa happens to be the worlds largest and second among the most heavily populated continent after Asia; it has different ethnic group. According to the piracy rate, Africa is one of the highest continents that has or make pirated soft wares in the world. With a 36% piracy rate, South Africa has the lowly piracy rate in Africa, where Nigeria and Kenya are the highest within the region as for 2000-2001 with 71% and 77% respectively as Zimbabwe has the highest in the world where South Africa has just one proportion above the overall average of 35%, according to the 3rd yearly International Data Corporation (IDC) and Business Software Alliance (BSA) overall software piracy study unconfined recently. South Africas piracy rate has decreased one proportion point in the current year, however still represents a 1.2b rand thrashing. The minor decrease in software piracy is qual ified to government act and the obtaining of renowned laptops other than desktop computers full by local assemblers. According to Stephan le Roux, the chairman of the Business Software Alliance (BSA) in South Africa in the following site: Editor, Maricelle Ruiz, IBLS Director Africa Wednesday, June 14, 2006 Software piracy ruins one of the main hurdles to understand the possible of the information economy in South Africa, on the continent and certainly roughly the world, As we are happy that piracy levels are dropping, there is still an anxiety for our local economy that over a third of software in use is against the law. This anxiety rises when you look at some countries in Africa, where as few as one in ten copies of packaged software are legally paid for. Due to the analysis made, the average rate for the African countries reviewed surpassed 70%, in Zimbabwe 90% of the software used is illegal and banned. Jointly with Vietnam, Zimbabwe has the maximum software piracy rate in the world. The mainstream of the African countries for which exact data is available Cameroon (84%); Botswana and Ivory Coast, Algeria and Zambia (83%), Nigeria and Senegal (82%), Tunisia and Kenya (81%) have a piracy rate above 80%. The study estimates that the rest of the countries in Africa, incorporated under the entry of extra Africa, have an average piracy rate of 84%. Egypt has been running to turn out to be a center for Arabic software, but also it has a 64% piracy rate with proportion point lower than the preceding year; while Morocco, which has just been highly praised by the humanity Intellectual Property Organization for adopting dealings to improve its IP system, contained a 68% piracy rate four proportion points lower than the preceding time. Morocc o is among the four countries with the leading proportion point in the preceding year. According to Angola press, quoting Hlatshwayo in by bodo on 16/10/06 Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Botswana and Kenya are named as the principal culprits; and As a result of piracy in Africa Microsoft lost $31 million between 2004 and 2006. Many African developing countries need to have IT staffs and implements ICT to joint the todays global world, but to purchase single software is too expensive where they use this reason and makes piracy or uses pirated software; what ever be the case, reasons for copying or making piracy are categorized into 3: 1) purpose of use, 2) economic reasons, and 3) legal reasons. Purpose of use Reasons in this compilation transmit to the reason of use (non-commercial use, running purposes at home, studying, testing) or to the method of using the software (momentary use, compatibility reasons). The subsequent examples demonstrate these views: It is satisfactory in non-business use (for example, studying); it is not satisfactory for trade purposes. You preserve not research by means of costly software earlier than you purchase it experimenting previously makes executive simple and gives self-assurance, I experience the licensing cost for many equipment foolishly patronize while I work at home in addition to at work. Economic reasons In this compilation, the purpose for the illegal duplication of software is based on economic issues. According to respondents, the motives after these reasons are paucity (lack of money) and the wish to accumulate or save money (cost-benefit/efficiency). The subsequent extracts demonstrate these views: In a family there is a jobless computer professional who needs to preserve and keep up his professional Skills, but the family has no money, so the only opportunity is unlawful or illegal copying of computer software. The cost-benefit association does not arrive up to hope. think, for example, games, which one can only play from first to last once, and which outlay 250-350 Finnish marks 50-70 USD/EURO. Legal reasons In this compilation, the purpose for illegal duplication of software is based on legal issues. According to respondents, the rule was measured conventional, or it does not believe duplication as illegal doings. Examples follow: It is not unlawful for personal persons (in Finnish rule this subject is not an illegal offence as far as persons are concerned) the accessible rule is bad, hard and conventional concerning this issue. Software piracy is an act that is against the law and has many problems or harms; among the problems of software piracy are: Software companies compact with very high losses due to software piracy. Pirates expand a lot of money from their software piracy. People are not attentive that what they are doing is a crime. Reasons why the unauthorized copying of software is unacceptable are clustered into three different content categories: negative consequences, free software available, moral and legal reasons and other reasons. Negative consequences The reasons under this compilation are based on the perceived negative consequences of the unauthorized doubling of software. According to respondents, the duplication of software brings on the following kinds of harmful penalty: the worth of software grow weaker, Systems run out since people in all-purpose are not paying software, the cost of software rises and the motion affects sincere and truthful users. Some respondents wrote in ACM Digital library p-siponen: It is possible that the software will weaken in quality, if the software does not bring in anything (widespread copying). The producers of programs lose money and their future production [of software] will suffer. The price of software stays high because only a few buy software. Moral and legal reasons The respondents alleged wickedness at the same time as reasons against illegal copying of Software. Examples are as follows: dishonesty; if unlawful software is used on behalf of earning then that work is morally wrong. If software is duplicated destined for earning money or if it is copied in huge amounts or if individual earns ones income through repetition or copying, I believe those actions wrong I have lawfully bought some of the software I use, but I also have copies of software. If I ever need program/programs for purposes of earning my living, I will definitely buy it/them. The question here is Why Do Piracy Rates Differ? Generally unspecified factors to clarify piracy were grouped into four categories: economic factor, technical factor, regulatory factor and social factor. By looking at each of them individually: Economic Factors. Researchers have long documented the consequence of software price in piracy. According to Shin et al after his research in ACM Digital Library p-bagchi suggest that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is inversely related to software piracy level. Given the decrease in software prices, it may be that a countrys GDP has less of an effect on piracy than it did some years ago. GDP was bringing into being to be a major marker of piracy in 1996 however not in 2001 or in 2003. More, GDP only might give explanation barely 62%à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬63% of the difference in piracy. These findings may help clarify why dissimilar studies have indoors at dissimilar conclusions regarding the Role of GDP. It appears that the shrink in comparative cost of software has pointed the need for piracy. Specified the raise in piracy above this time, nevertheless, it follows that supplementary factors are concerned, and promote that these factors are rising in shock. Technical Factors. Software piracy is assumed to be more widespread in nations with low IT infrastructure given that the eminence of existing software is minor. Thus, people frequently copy and work with pirated software. The difficulty is compounded as software revisions occur. While the necessitate to remain ready for action in the course of upgrades is essential, it is meaningful only if reasonable lots of researchers also consider that software piracy has also flourished through the beginning of the Internet given that some Web sites offer a complimentary software or at prices cheaper than the manufacturers. Regulatory Factors. By commanding elevated tariffs, therefore ever-increasing the cost of software, governments may innocently support piracy. Developing nations repeatedly enforce elevated tariffs on computer products and thus their piracy rates are superior. It is also thought that low censures for import and elevated accessibility of pirated software are also reasons for piracy growth. Copyright rules are well thought-out foreign-induced, without problems understood and outlying fewer strictly forced. According to Meso et al in ACM Digital Library p-bagchi he identified enforcement of copy write laws as a salient issue in the development of a sound national IT policy. However, governments do not consistently implement such rules, partly because of lax law-enforcement facilities and institutional traditions that tend to ignore corruption. Thus, while enforcement of intellectual property rights and proper education may alleviate the problem, in reality few offenders are caught or pr osecuted. Occasional raid s from law-enforcement authorities have seldom disturbed the flow of pirated software. In nations that allow pirated software to be sold at lower prices, black markets have flourished. Individuals and companies in these nations may not even be aware that buying pirated software is illegal since the software has an aura of legitimacy. The overall effect of low censure and easy availability can be captured by the indicator of corruption. Corruption can be defined as the charge of obtaining rights that merely the State can lawfully award, such as preference in loans, taxation, subsidies, tariffs, regulation, and government contracting. Social/Cultural Factors. These factors pass on to the established social or construction of a country and the attitudes joint by members of that society. Single assess of social or public structure is the merit between independence, an insecurely joined social network where people take care of themselves and collectivism, a strongly joined social network where the group reaction is strong. Software piracy is popular in collectivistic societies where people tend to create a psychological detachment among members of the in-group and the out-group. Obligations or devotion to in-groups are measured awfully essential, and in switch over people look forward to that members of in-groups will look after them. Out-groups, on the other hand are not deemed valuable of esteem, given that they do not donate to the broad comfort of the in-group. In such societies, software purchased by a person is estimated to be collective among members of the in-group. given that nearly all collectivistic societ ies lean to be third-world or developing countries, software producers in overseas nations are viewed as out-group Even though software piracy is against the law there are certain companies that benefit from software piracy; according to the president of Microsoft Corps business division within a question at Morgan Stanley Technology Conference the president Jeff Raikes, he admitted to facilitate the companys benefits on or after software piracy in an obvious tilt of the hat to the open basis software giving out replica; he also added by saying there was a well line among seeing high numbers of consumers and making sure that they are using genuine products. He said our favorite objective is that we would like people to use our product. If theyre going to plagiarize someone, we would like it to be us to a certain extent than someone else, he further says. And thats because we appreciate that in the long run the basic benefit is the install foundation of people who are working with our products. Also in addition to that, according to Adrian a technology journalist and author who has devoted over a decade to helping users gets the most from technology. He also runs a popular blog called The PC Doctor. on 4 October 2006 said I have a propensity to control my property here to hardware related matters, but I experience forced to remark on the newest twistsin theWindows Genuine Advantage saga. This newest twist is the declaration that Windows Vista is to containtechnology comparable to WGA intoit.This statement came out on 4 October 2006viaMicrosoft Press Pass in the form of a press release announcing software protection platform (SPP). Now, whileI dont overlook software piracy for a minute, I use to get it tough tomake much compassionfor the Redmond monster. The method that Microsoft has implemented SPP and WGA doesnt formulate it obvious that the judgment agreed on a PC can be flawed. As an alternative they areforcing individuals who by mistake accused of software piracy to excavate bottomless hooked on their pockets and come up with an additional $149, all because of a software virus. That isnt just incorrect, its wickedness. Allow me suggest the subsequent reaction to career: mistakenly condemning somebody of software piracy is in addition not victimless. See, the thing that bothers me concerning Windows Genuine Advantage and Software Protection Platform is not so much the technology but rather the Draconian way Microsoft is wielding this power over users. Microsoft is confidently dedicated to the perspective that everyone flagged as running a duplicated copy of Windows have to be running a duplicated copy. If the system works and just picks up on individuals running non-genuine copies of Windows, thats great. The world believes that everything that has advantages must have disadvantages; after the advantage of software piracy according to some communities and companies; software piracy disadvantages many people through different ways like the pirate, manufacturers, permanent consumer. If the pirate is caught, he or she spend time in prison, faces rigid and the company also decides to force down charges; a pirate is very liable to download a Trojan or even spy ware, but due to the fact that he likely does a lot of downloading in general, and also because many invented cracks and keygens are actually malware in costume. If pirates are pirating software from a particular company, the company does not receive as much money for their product. To manufacture software can be very expensive, and the cost needs to be recouped in the shear bulk of sales. Due to lack of revolving large profit, they cannot have enough money to finance another round of development, research and also cannot produce new and enhanced versions. The consumers has to deal with the improved anti-piracy safeguards, such as entering product activation key code, and sometimes even a special dongle one must plug into their computer; categorize the company who makes the software to offset the effects mentioned above, they have to increase the per-copy price of the software. Even Microsoft is not immune to this, thats why they created a $300 version of windows vista, even though XP professional only cost perhaps $200. Software piracy has different issues like ethical, professional, social, and legal. Looking at the ethical and professional issues we have: Programmers and the theater artists lose income when copying and repetition is frequent; due to extreme software piracy software companies loses a lot. Certainly we have the freedom to make a copy for a friend, but are duplicating of software an act of sympathy on our part or an act that need kindness reaction from the programmer? Even though large-scale marketable piracy is inferior, individual duplicating is still not ethical. Pricing that is far lower than the manufacturers price can be a warning, but lots of people believe they are getting a good buy not a pirated program. Social issues are: There are lots of things we cannot find the money for; so not being able to afford software is not an excuse for duplicating it. The amount and success of a company do not give reason for enchanting from it. The quantity of people copying software does not verify if it is right or not. People buy pirated software without realizing what theyre doing i.e. without knowing the implications of doing it. Customers use to buy products, such as books and CDs that can be shared with friends and family. There are lots of ways customers can be fooled; in the sense that a pirated software dealer can sale many soft wares with a single key to the customers and within some days the software will request for original key. Legal issues are: But if you buy Windows, it doesnt belong to you, its Microsofts; theyre just leasing you use it. Software piracy gets 7 years in prison Is against the copyright law There are certain options to reduce software piracy; the solutions are categorized into four, namely ethical, social, legal, and market. We have protection under ethical, applying laws under legal, education under social and detection under market. Make sure the protection of leisure industry, publishers and software companies savings expected, or hoped-for revenues. Apply on hand laws, policy, guidelines or increase new ones to protect copyright owners, but also to look after fair use, sensible community access, and the chance to use new technologies to the fullest to supply new services. Technical, executive and lawful solutions include technologies to frighten duplication, selling and contractual changes that reduce the motivation to duplicate unlawfully. Educating with reference to the purpose for copyright guard, enforcement and reconsideration of copyright law. Ensure that citizens who work in manufacturing, marketing, and management are paid for the time and exertion they put to produce the vague academic property we benefit from. Also in addition to how to reduce or avoid software piracy in Africa on Monday, 30 July 2007 an article was released in with the following heading: China in Raids to Limit Software Piracy in Africa The fight against computer software piracy in Africa has received a boost following raids and arrests made in southern China over the last two weeks, the result of the largest investigation of its kind in the world. The Public Security Bureau (PSB) in China, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and hundreds of personal companies and allies have been functioning as one to crack a most important software forging association. The association was supposedly liable for distributing US$2 billion (about P12.3 billion) value of forged Microsoft software to 27 countries around the world, as well as Nigeria. Not only did this putting off software resellers from making lawful revenues, it also bare users to the risks related with using pi rated software. The forged goods detained in the raids comprised 13 of Microsofts most well-liked products, counting Windows Vista, Office 2007, Office 2003, Windows XP and Windows Server. Microsoft appreciates the work of Chinas Public Security Bureau in taking such burly enforcement action with these arrests and raids in southern China, said Abednego Hlatshwayo, Anti-Piracy Manager at Microsoft East and Southern Africa. This issue is supposed to serve as a come around call to forgers. Consumers and other organizations in the region of the world are revolving you in, and important act will be taken to defend intellectual property. In conclusions I learn that the software company is an area where home businesses can compete well with multinationals in both local and foreign markets. Yet, without suitable security in less-developed countries mainly African countries where piracy rates are reasonably higher, software pirates can devastate the income streams of small companies that have managed to effectively create particular niches in the companies. That piracy could be helpful to companies without the occurrence of Network effect. If customers have major dissimilarities in their minor value of Money, piracy can shrink competition and increase companys earnings. The solution to the Assessment is the fact that the same amount of money represents different worth to different customers. Poor customers usually value money more than rich customers. The companies therefore need to appoint in more excited competitions to attract these customers, which could be harmful on the whole profits of the company. And all softwa re companies should joint Hand and tackle the pirates via applying laws, educating and detecting them. REFERENCES: Multi Agency Working: Child Vunerability Multi Agency Working: Child Vunerability There is a wealth of governmental documentation and policy reforms upholding the notion of agencies working in partnership to support vulnerable children. Previously to these reforms there had been a history of fragmentation between agencies and the therefore a inherent failure to share information resulting in catastrophic gaps in the support of vulnerable children. This was emphasised by Lord Laming (2002), and then the subsequent investigations and publication of the Climbie report (2003) post the preventable death of Victoria Climbie. The perceived importance of early identification and intervention as demonstrated in Every Child Matters. (2003, p3), DoH/DfES. (2004) We have to do more both to protect children and ensure each child fulfils their potential and the need for more co-located, multi-agency service in providing personalised support. The Childrens Act. (2004) was the culmination of the Green Paper DfES. (2003) Every Child Matters:Change for Children Agenda, which dictated that every local authority has power to administer grouped budgets and implement a Childrens Trust in order to pull together services to meet the specific needs of an individual child. Wilson, V. Pirrie, A. (2000) states that although partnership working is upheld as extremely beneficial for all children, those children with special educational needs and/or disabilities have formed the focus of much of the educational multi-agency activity. The aims of coordinating these services through a shared working practice across the health and education arena whilst providing a therefore seamless service of support and a one-stop shop for all provisions, supported with the collaboration of Multi-agency working, are strongly emphasised within a plethora of governmental literature DfES. (2003/2004). Joint working is therefore unequivocally viewed as the m eans of providing a more cohesive and therefore effective integrated approach to addressing the needs of the child and family, and in doing so, overcoming many additional stresses that are imposed on families through fragmented support and services and therefore giving the child the best possible start in life DoH. (2006). Although no one argues against the benefits of integrated services Stiff. (2007), and there is clear decisive backing and direction for local restructuring and reorganisation to shape services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable children more effectively, the detail surrounding the configuration and delivery of local services has not been prescribed Rutter, M. (2006). There is minimal research-based evidence regarding the efficiency of multi-agency practice or suggesting which activity carried out by those agencies is most useful, with no absolute model of the many factors influencing its success Salmon, G. (2004). However, the Government has demonstrated a s ubstantial commitment to local authorities developing multi-agency partnerships, providing considerable flexibility for those local authorities and communities to develop their own multi-agency activities, tailored to meet specific needs of their individual areas. However it has often proved difficult to establish the exact impact of multi-agency working, mainly because of the difficulty of isolating why and how a particular outcome has been achieved. This is changing as major programmes are evaluated, Atkinson et al, (2002) states that other commonly identified outcomes of multi-agency work are an increase in access to services not previously available and therefore a wider range of services, easier or quicker access to services or expertise, improved educational attainment and better engagement in education by pupils, early identification and intervention, better support for parents, childrens needs addressed more appropriately, better quality services, a reduced need for more spe cialist services and benefits for staff within those services. Introduction to the SEN Team (SENCo) There are many teams working within the umbrella of education and child services, one particular team is that of the Special Educational Needs team, this case study will focus on the role of the Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCo). The role of the SENCo has been formally established Cowne, E (2003) since the 1994 code of practice DFE (1994) when all schools in England and Wales were required to have a designated teacher in the role of special educational needs coordinator (SENCo). But many schools had SENCos before that date, as the role had been developing since the mid 1980s when training of SENCos had begun in most LEAs. The 1994 code of practice DFE (1994) detailed the tasks that should be covered in the role of the SENCo. These tasks included liaising with external agencies including the educational psychology service and other support agencies, medical and social services and voluntary bodies DFE (1994, para 2.14). A revised code of practice Dfes (2001) added the resp onsibility of managing the SEN team of teachers and learning support assistants within the educational establishment where recently (2006) its significance was re-affirmed. SENCos play a key role in building schools capacity and skills in meeting childrens SEN because of their crucial role in advising other members of staff on SEN matters, linking with parents and working within the multi-agency arena. There is substantial literature related to SENCos authored by researchers, academics and practitioners, in particular, the nature, remit and working conditions of SENCos have been the subject of considerable interest. At school-level, the expectations on, activities of and working condition of SENCos remain highly variable. Barriers how are they overcome (Theory and practice) The achievement of effective multi-agency working within the SEN arena has proved more difficult to achieve than was initially anticipated. In order to create a climate of change where SEN professionals and agencies can work effectively together it is needed that the participants understand what the barriers to change are. Some of the barriers to achieving more effective multi-agency working within the SEN environment that have been identified by DFes (2007) are professionalism; conflicting priorities of different agencies; dealing with risk and the need to change the culture of organisations. Working in collaboration with other professionals and agencies involves SEN and multi-agency workers moving out of their comfort zone and taking risks. Anning, A. (2001, p.8) highlights, However, little attention has been given to two significant aspects of the operationalisation of integrated services. The first is the challenge for SEN workers of creating new professional identities in the ev er changing communities of practice (who I am). The second is for workers to openly communicate and share their personal and professional knowledge in order to create a new version of knowledge (what I know) for a new multi-agency way of working. Lownsbrough, H. and OLeary, D. (2005) states that Despite the genuine support of Every Child Matters, all SEN professionals are faced with the constant challenge of not reverting back to their comfort zone of their organisational boundaries, their professional authority and life inside these traditional boundaries can be far less complex and threatening, and after years of working in a particular fashion they are not easily forgotten. Although no one argues against the benefits of integrated services of multi-agency working Stiff, R. (2007), and there is clear strategic backing and direction for local restructuring and reorganisation to configure SEN services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable children more effectively. There is still little research-based evidence regarding the efficiency of multi-agency strategies or suggesting which activity is most useful, with no comprehensive model of the issues influencing its success Salmon, G. (2004). However, Government has demonstrated substantial commitment to local authorities developing multi-agency partnerships of which SEN is part of, and also providing considerable flexibility for local authorities and communities to develop their own multi-agency activities, tailored to meet their own local needs.Joined-up working has deep implications for the professionals working within the SEN teams, and for the agencies that commission their services. In multi-agency team work, professional knowledge boundaries could have a tendency to become blurred, professional identity can become challenged as roles, and responsibilities change. Some SEN team members may struggle to cope with the fragmentation of one version of their professional identity before a new version can be bui lt. Moreover, the rapid pace of SEN reform leaves little time for adjustment as SEN teams move (often within tight time scales) from strategic planning to operational implementation, with little time for joint training Birchall, E. Hallett, C. (1995). However, it could also be said Freeman, M, Miller Ross, (2002); Harker, Dobel-Ober, Berridge Sinclair, (2004) that SEN team members are more likely to deliver on their objectives with sufficient planning and support from partnering agencies that established the teams in the first place which inturn leads on to empower inter-professional collaboration which include not only enhancing coordination structurally, but also establishing a culture of commitment at a strategic and operational plane to overcome professionally differentiated attitudes. 4. The Way Forward It has been said Bowlby, J. (1988) that children need a secure base from which to explore the world. SEN practitioners also need a secure base in the knowledge that has been acquired though training and practice. Perhaps there is a need for an individual to value what they know and be confident about their knowledge. At the same time to be aware that their professionalism relies on constant updating of working practice and skills via work training and further education, and being aware that there is always something new to be learnt or shared. SEN Professionals now and in the future need to be able to draw on the professional skills that they have, but not to be dominated by them. If they are secure in what they know it could be said that this should enable them to have the confidence to challenge their own thinking and to be open to the different perspectives of other multi-agency professionals. Therefore it can be said that If SEN professionals are to challenge themselves and other s through collaborative dialogue they would also need to be emotionally contained themselves Bion, W. (1962). This act requires good honest SENCo leadership and a culture where trusting relationships can be built. Harris, B. (2004) described trusting relationships as broadly taking place within three dimensions, based in conceptions of emotionality. Effectively these dimensions add up to conditions in which staff first experience a sense of their own value within an organization, in which they feel comfortable about their own abilities and needs; second that through supportive relationships within the organization they reflect upon practice, in dialogue with colleagues, and thirdly they work together to create change and improvement in the setting, or organization, confident of support. Clearly, in order to build effective and trusting relationships SEN team members would need to understand themselves and to have the confidence to share more with others. This process of cultural cha nge is essential if multi-agency working is going to be able to provide better services to children and their families alike.